DefinitionDiskitis is swelling (inflammation) and irritation of the space between the bones of the spine (intervertebral disk space).Alternative NamesDisk inflammationCauses, incidence, and risk factorsDiskitis is an uncommon condition. It is usually seen in children younger than age 10.Diskitis can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection, or it can be caused by other inflammation, such as from autoimmune diseases (conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks certain cells in the body). The upper back (thoracic) and low back (lumbar) disks are most commonly affected.Diskitis can also be confused with problems related to hip pain.SymptomsAbdominal painBack painDifficulty getting up and standingIncreased curvature of the backIrritabilityLow-grade fever (less than 102 degrees Fahrenheit)Recent flu-like symptomsRefusal to sit up, stand, or walk (younger child)Stiffness in backSigns and testsBone scanCBCESRMRI of the spineX-ray of the spineTreatmentThe goal is to treat the cause of the inflammation and reduce pain. Your child may receive antibiotics if the health care provider suspects an infection. Autoimmune diseases are often treated with anti-inflammatory medications.If the condition does not improve, steroids may be given, although an infection should be ruled out first. Pain may be relieved with painkillers (analgesics) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Talk to the health care provider about the best choice of medications.Bed rest or immobilization (which may require a brace) may be recommended in some cases.Expectations (prognosis)Children with an infection should fully recover after treatment. Chronic back pain from this condition is very rare.advertisementIn cases of autoimmune disease, the outcome depends on the condition. These are often chronic illnesses.ComplicationsPersistent back pain (rare)Side effects of medicationsCalling your health care providerCall your health care provider if your child has persistent back pain or problems with standing and walking that seem unusual for his or her age.ReferencesSpiegel DA, Dormans JP. Disk space infection. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 671.7.Gutierrez KM. Diskitis. In: Long SS, ed. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 82.Review Date:8/11/2012Reviewed By:Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington. C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
Definition Knee pain is a common symptom in people of all ages. It may start suddenly, often after an injury or exercise. Knee pain may also began as a mild discomfort, then slowly worsen.Alternative NamesPain – kneeCommon CausesSimple causes of knee pain often clear up on their own with self care. Being overweight can put you at greater risk for knee problems.Knee pain can be caused by:Anterior knee painArthritis — including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and goutBakers cyst — a fluid-filled swelling behind the knee that may occur with swelling (inflammation) from other causes, like arthritisBursitis — inflammation from repeated pressure on the knee, such as kneeling for long periods of time, overuse, or injuryConnective tissue disorders such as lupusDislocation of the kneecapIliotibial band syndrome — a hip disorder from injury to the thick band that runs from your hip to the outside of your kneeInfection in the jointKnee injuries — an anterior cruciate ligament injury or medial collateral ligament injury may cause bleeding into your knee, which makes the pain worseOsgood-Schlatter diseaseTendinitis — a pain in the front of your knee that gets worse when going up and down stairs or inclinesTorn cartilage (a meniscus tear) — pain felt on the inside or outside of the knee jointTorn ligament (ACL tear) — leads to pain and instability of the kneeStrain or sprain — minor injuries to the ligaments caused by sudden or unnatural twistingLess common conditions that can lead to knee pain include bone tumors.advertisementHome CareFor knee pain that has just started:Rest and avoid activities that aggravate your pain, especially weight bearing activities.Apply ice. First, apply it every hour for up to 15 minutes. After the first day, apply it at least four times per day.Keep your knee raised as much as possible to bring any swelling down.Wear an ace bandage or elastic sleeve, which you can buy at most pharmacies. This may reduce swelling and provide support.Take acetaminophen for pain or ibuprofen for pain and swelling.Sleep with a pillow underneath or between your knees.For knee pain related to overuse or physical activity:Always warm up before exercising and cool down afterward. Stretch your quadriceps and hamstrings.Avoid running straight down hills — walk down instead.Bicycle or swim instead of run.Reduce the amount of exercise you do.Run on a smooth, soft surface, such as a track, instead of on cement.Lose weight if you are overweight. Every pound that you are overweight puts about 5 extra pounds of pressure on your knee cap when you go up and down stairs. Ask your health care provider for help losing weight.If you have flat feet, try special shoe inserts and arch supports (orthotics).Make sure your running shoes are made well, fit well, and have good cushioning.Tips to relieve knee bursitis pain:Use ice three to four times a day for the first 2 or 3 days. Cover your knee with a towel and place ice on it for 15 minutes. Do not fall asleep while using ice. You can leave it on too long and get frostbite.Try not to stand for long periods of time. If you must stand, do so on a soft, cushioned surface. Stand with an equal amount of weight on each leg.When you sleep, do not lie on the side that has bursitis. Place a pillow between your knees when you lie on your side to help decrease your pain.Wear flat shoes that are cushioned and comfortable.If you are overweight, losing weight may help.Call your health care provider ifCall your doctor if:You cannot bear weight on your kneeYou have severe pain, even when not bearing weightYour knee buckles, clicks, or locksYour knee is deformed or misshapenYou have a fever, redness or warmth around the knee, or significant swellingYou have pain, swelling, numbness, tingling, or bluish discoloration in the calf below the sore kneeYou still have pain after 3 days of home treatmentWhat to expect at your health care providers officeYour health care provider will perform a physical examination, with careful attention to your knees, hips, legs, and other joints.To help diagnose the cause of the problem, your health care provider will ask medical history questions, such as:When did your knee first begin to hurt?Have you had knee pain before? What was the cause?How long has this episode of knee pain lasted?Do you feel the pain all the time, or off and on?Are both knees affected?Is the pain in your entire knee or one location, like the kneecap, outer or inner edge, or below the knee?Is the pain severe?Can you stand or walk?Have you had an injury or accident involving the knee?Have you overused the leg? Describe your usual activities and exercise routine.What home treatments have you tried? Have they helped?Do you have other symptoms, such as pain in your hip, pain down your leg or calf, knee swelling, swelling in your calf or leg, or fever?The following tests may be done:advertisementJoint fluid culture (fluid taken from the knee and examined under a microscope)MRI of the knee if a ligament or meniscus tear is suspectedX-ray of the kneeYour doctor may inject a steroid into the knee to reduce pain and inflammation.You may need to learn stretching and strengthening exercises and podiatrist (to be fitted for orthotics).In some cases, you may need surgery.PreventionReferencesFrontera WR, Silver JK, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2008:section 7.Honkamp NJ, Shen W, Okeke N, Ferretti M, Fu FH. Knee: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the adult. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drezs Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap 23, section D.Huddleston JI, Goodman SB. Hip and knee pain. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr, et al, eds. Kelleys Textbook of Rheumatology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 42.Review Date:11/9/2012Reviewed By:A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang. Previouly reviewed by Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine; and C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery (6/4/2011).
November 26, 2014HAPPY THANKSGIVING to family and friends near and far.Much to be grateful for! Here are a few snapshots by photographer Ivan Pintar of the very early years at Arcosanti. Ivan was part of the Cosanti Foundation from the early 1960’s until his death at Cosanti in 1994. The Soleri Archives at Arcosanti houses his enormous slide collection.Here we see silt preparation of the panels for the South Vault.The side panels of the Vaults are in place, also the foundations of the Ceramics Apse.The South Vault.This photo is by Annette Del Zoppo.View from the top of the Vaults to the Ceramics Apse and Foundry.Silt work on the Foundry Apse.The Foundry Apse roof pour.Paolo Soleri on the silt for the Foundry apartment roof.
Canal+ has signed a new non-exclusive distribution deal with rival BeIN Sports following the French competition watchdog’s refusal to greenlight the pair’s planned exclusive partnership, according to local press.The deal between the Qatar-owned sports broadcaster and the Vivendi-owned pay TV outfit gives BeIN Sports a guaranteed source of revenues for several years, while the service will remain potentially available via other providers such as Orange, Free or SFR, according to BFM TV, which broke the story.The agreement is a renewal of a deal originally struck in 2012 that sees BeIN Sports receive revenues in line with the number of subscribers signed up for its service via Canal+.Under the exclusive partnership sought by the pair but vetoed in June by the competition regulator, Canal+ would have paid €400 million a year to secure exclusive carriage of BeIN Sports on its pay TV service.In rejecting an exclusive tie-up, the country’s competition authority ruled “that the conditions are not currently satisfied to lift the ban on exclusive broadcasting of premium sports” imposed on Canal+ in 2012 years ago, which is not due to expire until 2017.