Study: US oil field source of global uptick in air pollution by Michael Biesecker And Matthew Brown, The Associated Press Posted Apr 30, 2016 1:56 am MDT Last Updated Apr 30, 2016 at 2:40 am MDT AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to RedditRedditShare to 電子郵件Email WASHINGTON – An oil and natural gas field in the western United States is largely responsible for a global uptick of the air pollutant ethane, according to a new study.The team led by researchers at the University of Michigan found that fossil fuel production at the Bakken Formation in North Dakota and Montana is emitting roughly 2 per cent of the ethane detected in the Earth’s atmosphere.Along with its chemical cousin methane, ethane is a hydrocarbon that is a significant component of natural gas. Once in the atmosphere, ethane reacts with sunlight to form ozone, which can trigger asthma attacks and other respiratory problems, especially in children and the elderly. Ethane pollution can also harm agricultural crops. Ozone also ranks as the third-largest contributor to human-caused global warming after carbon dioxide and methane.“We didn’t expect one region to have such a global influence,” said Eric Kort, lead author of the study and an assistant professor of climatic science at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.The study was launched after a mountaintop sensor in the European Alps began registering surprising spikes in ethane concentrations in the atmosphere starting in 2010, following decades of declines. The increase, which has continued over the last five years, was noted at the same time new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques were fueling a boom of oil and gas production from previously inaccessible shale rock formations in the United States.Searching for the source of the ethane, an aircraft from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2014 sampled air from directly overhead and downwind of drilling rigs in the Bakken region. Those measurements showed ethane emissions far higher than what was being reported to the government by oil and gas companies.The findings solve an atmospheric mystery — where that extra ethane was coming from, said Colm Sweeney, a study co-author from the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado in Boulder.The researchers said other U.S. oil and gas fields, especially the Eagle Ford in Texas, are also likely contributing to the global rise in ethane concentrations. Ethane gets into the air through leaks from drilling rigs, gas storage facilities and pipelines, as well as from intentional venting and gas burnoffs from extraction operations.“We need to take these regions into account because it could really be impacting air quality in a way that might matter across North America,” Kort said.Helping drive the high emission levels from the Bakken has been the oil field’s meteoric growth. Efforts to install and maintain equipment to capture ethane and other volatile gases before they can escape have lagged behind drilling, said North Dakota Environmental Health Chief Dave Glatt.Glatt’s agency has stepped up enforcement efforts in response. Last year, the state purchased a specialized camera that can detect so-called fugitive gas emissions as they escape from uncontained oil storage tanks, leaky pipelines, processing facilities and other sources.“You’re able to see what the naked eye can’t and it reveals emissions sources you didn’t know where there,” Glatt said. “It’s a game changer. A lot of the companies thought they were in good shape, and they looked through the camera and saw they weren’t.”Regulators at the Environmental Protection Agency were reviewing the study’s results. Spokeswoman Laura Allen said Friday that new clean air rules recently announced by the Obama administration to curb climate-warming methane leaks from oil and gas drilling operations should also help address the harmful ethane emissions.There are other ways ethane gets into the atmosphere — including wildfires and natural seepage from underground gas reserves. But fossil fuel extraction is the dominant source, accounting for roughly 60 to 70 per cent of global emissions, according to a 2013 study from researchers at the University of California.___Brown reported from Billings, Mont.___Follow Michael Biesecker Twitter at https://twitter.com/mbieseck and find his work at http://bigstory.ap.org/content/michael-bieseckerFollow Matthew Brown : http://twitter.com/matthewbrownap
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has released a funding opportunity announcement calling on US colleges and universities to propose new projects to enhance the long-term use of coal. This launches the 30th year of DOE’s University Coal Research (UCR) program, its longest-running student-teacher research grant program. Since the program’s inception in 1979, nearly 1,765 students have received hands-on research experience investigating long-term solutions for clean and efficient use of coal. The program supports DOE’s continued commitment to improving the environmental performance of coal. This year, the program will make available $2.4 million to fund projects with a maximum of $300,000 per project. Each project will involve one or two colleges or universities and will extend over 36 months. Research proposals are being sought in three areas of interest:Computational Energy Sciences – Applications are being sought for multiphase flow research to complement ongoing NETL-funded modeling research and for projects to develop process/equipment co-simulations of highly efficient, near-zero-emission fossil energy plantsMaterial Science – Applications are being sought for new materials ideas and concepts that stretch beyond the current state of the art for fossil energy applications. Applications are also sought for the development of computational tools and simulations that will reliably predict properties of materials for fossil energy systems in advance of fabricationNovel Materials for Sensing or Monitoring in Extreme Environments of Fossil Energy Systems – Innovations are sought for the development of novel sensor materials and devices to measure process parameters in the corrosive, high-temperature (>500oC), high-pressure (17 bar) conditions found in fossil energy systems.Proposals are due by June 10, 2008. The National Energy Technology Laboratory, which implements the program for the Energy Department, will name the winning projects in December 2008.